Israel realised in 2005 that Gaza is uncontrollable. The Israeli security apparatuses, however, kept the Strip under surveillance. The result might be seen as a series of agreements among all of the above-mentioned actors, none of whom like each other. But the people get left out, faced with neither reconstruction nor governance.
Arsal (also spelled Arsaal), is an economically, politically and socially marginalized town in the north of the Bekaa region that sits along the country's frontier with Syria. In this paper, ACRPS staff researcher Hamzeh Almoustafa examines Arsal's role as a flashpoint for jihadist violence, and the spillover from the Syrian revolution.
The future stability of Iraq depends on a peaceful resolution to the problem of Kirkuk. This article examines the contested city, and suggests the formation of a consociational democracy as a solution to current political divisions. It argues that a power sharing arrangement based on consociation is crucial to addressing the demands of each group in the city and for maintaining stability and diversity. Distinguishing in this way between corporate and liberal consociations can offer an institutional mechanism to manage and resolve tensions over the city and build a stable government in Kirkuk. The article also proposes that Kirkuk offers a valuable case study for the region as a whole. Looking at Iraqi legal documents, including the constitution and a decade of local governance experience, the article concludes that adopting liberal consociational democracy country-wide is necessary, feasible, and ultimately, would enable a viable future for the nation.
The GCC states have been attempting to effect the transition from oil-based "distributive" economies to knowledge-based economies. This paper, originally presented at our 2014 conference of Arab research centers, uses a variety of qualitative techniques to understand the obstacles that stand in the way of such a transformation, with a particular focus on the issues and challenges facing the educational sectors of these countries.
Tunisia has thus far been the most successful post-Arab Spring state in terms of the efforts towards a democratic transition. This Case Analysis examines the factors that motivated Tunisian voters during the October, 2014 parliamentary elections which preceded the presidential elections two months later.
The United States has often been accused of hypocrisy as it has struggled, as do all nations, with the challenge of balancing its values with its foreign policy interests. However, this accusation was rarely leveled in the Middle East during the years between the Versailles Treaty and the outbreak of World War II. Most in the region realized that U.S. interests in their area were limited, and generally viewed Washington’s influence as benevolent.
This contrasts with the situation in the aftermath of the Six Day War in 1967, when Washington assumed leadership in the Arab-Israeli peace process and resisted European and UN efforts to play independent roles. With all this came a growing difficulty in reconciling American interests and its values, a development which Cold War competition with the Soviet Union both stimulated and constrained.
Palestinian refugees in Lebanon occupy a uniquely racialized position, but some observers and segments of the Lebanese public, as well as the Palestinians themselves, downplay the racialization of Palestinians. By examining the events that took place in the Palestinian refugee camp Nahr al-Bared in 2007 and in the Lebanese town of Arsal in 2013, and basing its findings on interviews and archival research of Lebanese newspapers, this study claims that Palestinians are not simply one of many “others” in a country divided along confessional and political lines. The issue of boundary creation and maintenance between Lebanese and Palestinians, as an integral part of the racialization process, is also analysed. The focus is on racialization as a practice of the Lebanese state, and not as a phenomenon between Lebanese and Palestinians as peoples. The article concludes by questioning whether the Palestinian presence in Lebanon lends Lebanese national identity a relative degree of coherence.
Emad Kaddorah examines the challenges facing Turkey as it decides on its course of action towards the growing international conflict in its geopolitical backyard. Given the country's own ethnic composition and the interconnectedness of this with those of the states its borders, as well as its other obligations, the choices facing Ankara are not going to be easy.
Morocco is one of the Arab region's most deeply entrenched and long-lasting monarchies. This paper examines the impact of the February 20 Movement, a grassroots campaign inspired by the Arab Spring, on the drafting of the 2011 Constitution in Morocco. A broad and diverse umbrella group aimed at combatting corruption, the February 20 Movement and the civil society institutions of which it was composed were successful in bringing about real change to the Kingdom, and saw the country's first Islamist government.
Alison Pargeter, the author of a number of books on Libya and its former President, looks into how the downfall of the country's former strongman has played out in the conflicts between separatists across the country and between Islamists and their rivals.